Zimbabwe Peace Agreement
It is reported that Zambian President Kaunda had a great influence on this outcome, although nowhere in the final agreement does a compromise formula for this district seem to have survived. It is no doubt close to the truth that President Kaunda, like almost all the others closely involved, urgently wants a settlement of all parties and has recognized Lancaster House as the last chance to obtain it. In this case, has there ever been a probability of a “second-rate solution”: an agreement between Great Britain and Bishop Muzorewa alone? Such a solution would probably have met Lusaka`s demands of Commonwealth heads of government, as the record would have shown that Britain tried and failed to find a first-rate solution. But that would have left a lot of obligations. In this case, Britain has found its first-rate solution if the practical possibilities of the ceasefire do not conflict more than is expected. After 14 years of failure, it is thanks to the Rhedea team of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the skill of the President. But it is also a measure of pressure on a settlement that even Mr Mugabe, confident on the battlefield, could not resist. The most urgent tasks of the new government were the establishment of greater peace, the unity of the population, the resettlement of refugees, the re-establishment of war-affected communities and the reconstruction of the economy. Housing was quickly found for refugees returning from Mozambique, Zambia and Botswana, which had a population of a quarter of a million, and for internally displaced persons, who had nearly two million inhabitants, and their arable land. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, other international organizations and friendly countries have generously supported resettlement assistance.
The program went so well that, despite the hunger for land, a crop of bumper maize (corn) was carried out among farmers. The agreement would lead to the dissolution of Zimbabwe`s unrecognized state of Rhodesia, created months earlier by the internal regime; an agreement between moderate black nationalists and the government of Prime Minister Ian Smith. While Zimbabwe-Rhodesia has not been recognized, the internal settlement has deprived the majority of blacks (so far the main British claim) and led to the election of the country`s first black prime minister. Another dimension of the Prime Minister`s reconciliation policy was the request to Lord Soames, who managed the country during the three months of the transition period, to join him in leading the country to independence. As part of a gentlemen`s agreement, Lord Soames remained governor until 18 April 1980, when the Union ceded Jack to the Zimbabwean flag. The three-month conference was virtually unable to reach an agreement due to differences on land reform. Mugabe was put under pressure to sign, and the country was the most important stumbling block. [Citation required] Both the British and American governments proposed to compensate white citizens for each country sold to support reconciliation (the “Willing Buyer, Willing Seller” principle) and to create a fund to operate from 1980 to 1990. [Citation required] During its deliberations, the Conference reached agreement on the following issues: the agreement signed on 21 December 1979.  Lord Carrington and Sir Ian Gilmour signed the agreement on behalf of the United Kingdom, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr Silas Mundawarara signed for the government of Zimbabwe Rhodode and Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo for the Patriotic Front. Following the Commonwealth Heads of State and Government Meeting in Lusaka from 1 to 7 August 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa and patriotic Front leaders to a constitutional conference at Lancaster House.